In a previous post, I explored how one might apply classification to solve a complex problem. This post will explore the code necessary to implement that nearest neighbor classification algorithm. If you would like a full copy of the source code, it is available here in zip format.

**Knn.java** – This is the main driver of the code. To do the classification, we are essentially interested in finding the distance between the particular instance we are trying to classify to other instances. We then determine the classification of the instance we want from a “majority vote” of the other *k* closest instances. Each feature of an instance is a separate class that essentially just stores a continuous or discrete value depending on if you are using regression or not to classify your neighbors. The additional feature classes and file reader are left to the reader as an exercise. Note that it would be fairly easy to weight features using this model depending on if you want to give one feature more clout than another in determining the neighbors.

The nice visualization of the algorithm is provided by Kardi Teknomo. As you can see, we take the number of *k* closest instances and use a “majority vote” to classify the instance. While this is an extremely simple method, it is great for noisy data and large data sets. The two drawbacks are the running time *O(n^2)* and the fact that we have to determine *k* ahead of time. However, despite this, as shown in the previous paper, the accuracy can be quite high.

```
import java.util.*;
public class Knn {
public static final String PATH_TO_DATA_FILE = "coupious.data";
public static final int NUM_ATTRS = 9;
public static final int K = 262;
public static final int CATEGORY_INDEX = 0;
public static final int DISTANCE_INDEX = 1;
public static final int EXPIRATION_INDEX = 2;
public static final int HANDSET_INDEX = 3;
public static final int OFFER_INDEX = 4;
public static final int WSACTION_INDEX = 5;
public static final int NUM_RUNS = 1000;
public static double averageDistance = 0;
public static void main(String[] args) {
ArrayList instances = null;
ArrayList distances = null;
ArrayList neighbors = null;
WSAction.Action classification = null;
Instance classificationInstance = null;
FileReader reader = null;
int numRuns = 0, truePositives = 0, falsePositives = 0, falseNegatives = 0, trueNegatives = 0;
double precision = 0, recall = 0, fMeasure = 0;
falsePositives = 1;
reader = new FileReader(PATH_TO_DATA_FILE);
instances = reader.buildInstances();
do {
classificationInstance = extractIndividualInstance(instances);
distances = calculateDistances(instances, classificationInstance);
neighbors = getNearestNeighbors(distances);
classification = determineMajority(neighbors);
System.out.println("Gathering " + K + " nearest neighbors to:");
printClassificationInstance(classificationInstance);
printNeighbors(neighbors);
System.out.println("\nExpected situation result for instance: " + classification.toString());
if(classification.toString().equals(((WSAction)classificationInstance.getAttributes().get(WSACTION_INDEX)).getAction().toString())) {
truePositives++;
}
else {
falseNegatives++;
}
numRuns++;
instances.add(classificationInstance);
} while(numRuns < NUM_RUNS);
precision = ((double)(truePositives / (double)(truePositives + falsePositives)));
recall = ((double)(truePositives / (double)(truePositives + falseNegatives)));
fMeasure = ((double)(precision * recall) / (double)(precision + recall));
System.out.println("Precision: " + precision);
System.out.println("Recall: " + recall);
System.out.println("F-Measure: " + fMeasure);
System.out.println("Average distance: " + (double)(averageDistance / (double)(NUM_RUNS * K)));
}
public static Instance extractIndividualInstance(ArrayList instances) {
Random generator = new Random(new Date().getTime());
int random = generator.nextInt(instances.size() - 1);
Instance singleInstance = instances.get(random);
instances.remove(random);
return singleInstance;
}
public static void printClassificationInstance(Instance classificationInstance) {
for(Feature f : classificationInstance.getAttributes()) {
System.out.print(f.getName() + ": ");
if(f instanceof Category) {
System.out.println(((Category)f).getCategory().toString());
}
else if(f instanceof Distance) {
System.out.println(((Distance)f).getDistance().toString());
}
else if (f instanceof Expiration) {
System.out.println(((Expiration)f).getExpiry().toString());
}
else if (f instanceof Handset) {
System.out.print(((Handset)f).getOs().toString() + ", ");
System.out.println(((Handset)f).getDevice().toString());
}
else if (f instanceof Offer) {
System.out.println(((Offer)f).getOfferType().toString());
}
else if (f instanceof WSAction) {
System.out.println(((WSAction)f).getAction().toString());
}
}
}
public static void printNeighbors(ArrayList neighbors) {
int i = 0;
for(Neighbor neighbor : neighbors) {
Instance instance = neighbor.getInstance();
System.out.println("\nNeighbor " + (i + 1) + ", distance: " + neighbor.getDistance());
i++;
for(Feature f : instance.getAttributes()) {
System.out.print(f.getName() + ": ");
if(f instanceof Category) {
System.out.println(((Category)f).getCategory().toString());
}
else if(f instanceof Distance) {
System.out.println(((Distance)f).getDistance().toString());
}
else if (f instanceof Expiration) {
System.out.println(((Expiration)f).getExpiry().toString());
}
else if (f instanceof Handset) {
System.out.print(((Handset)f).getOs().toString() + ", ");
System.out.println(((Handset)f).getDevice().toString());
}
else if (f instanceof Offer) {
System.out.println(((Offer)f).getOfferType().toString());
}
else if (f instanceof WSAction) {
System.out.println(((WSAction)f).getAction().toString());
}
}
}
}
public static WSAction.Action determineMajority(ArrayList neighbors) {
int yea = 0, ney = 0;
for(int i = 0; i < neighbors.size(); i++) { Neighbor neighbor = neighbors.get(i); Instance instance = neighbor.getInstance(); if(instance.isRedeemed()) { yea++; } else { ney++; } } if(yea > ney) {
return WSAction.Action.Redeem;
}
else {
return WSAction.Action.Hit;
}
}
public static ArrayList getNearestNeighbors(ArrayList distances) {
ArrayList neighbors = new ArrayList();
for(int i = 0; i < K; i++) {
averageDistance += distances.get(i).getDistance();
neighbors.add(distances.get(i));
}
return neighbors;
}
public static ArrayList calculateDistances(ArrayList instances, Instance singleInstance) {
ArrayList distances = new ArrayList();
Neighbor neighbor = null;
int distance = 0;
for(int i = 0; i < instances.size(); i++) {
Instance instance = instances.get(i);
distance = 0;
neighbor = new Neighbor();
// for each feature, go through and calculate the "distance"
for(Feature f : instance.getAttributes()) {
if(f instanceof Category) {
Category.Categories cat = ((Category) f).getCategory();
Category singleInstanceCat = (Category)singleInstance.getAttributes().get(CATEGORY_INDEX);
distance += Math.pow((cat.ordinal() - singleInstanceCat.getCategory().ordinal()), 2);
}
else if(f instanceof Distance) {
Distance.DistanceRange dist = ((Distance) f).getDistance();
Distance singleInstanceDist = (Distance)singleInstance.getAttributes().get(DISTANCE_INDEX);
distance += Math.pow((dist.ordinal() - singleInstanceDist.getDistance().ordinal()), 2);
}
else if (f instanceof Expiration) {
Expiration.Expiry exp = ((Expiration) f).getExpiry();
Expiration singleInstanceExp = (Expiration)singleInstance.getAttributes().get(EXPIRATION_INDEX);
distance += Math.pow((exp.ordinal() - singleInstanceExp.getExpiry().ordinal()), 2);
}
else if (f instanceof Handset) {
// there are two calculations needed here, one for device, one for OS
Handset.Device device = ((Handset) f).getDevice();
Handset singleInstanceDevice = (Handset)singleInstance.getAttributes().get(HANDSET_INDEX);
distance += Math.pow((device.ordinal() - singleInstanceDevice.getDevice().ordinal()), 2);
Handset.OS os = ((Handset) f).getOs();
Handset singleInstanceOs = (Handset)singleInstance.getAttributes().get(HANDSET_INDEX);
distance += Math.pow((os.ordinal() - singleInstanceOs.getOs().ordinal()), 2);
}
else if (f instanceof Offer) {
Offer.OfferType offer = ((Offer) f).getOfferType();
Offer singleInstanceOffer = (Offer)singleInstance.getAttributes().get(OFFER_INDEX);
distance += Math.pow((offer.ordinal() - singleInstanceOffer.getOfferType().ordinal()), 2);
}
else if (f instanceof WSAction) {
WSAction.Action action = ((WSAction) f).getAction();
WSAction singleInstanceAction = (WSAction)singleInstance.getAttributes().get(WSACTION_INDEX);
distance += Math.pow((action.ordinal() - singleInstanceAction.getAction().ordinal()), 2);
}
else {
System.out.println("Unknown category in distance calculation. Exiting for debug: " + f);
System.exit(1);
}
}
neighbor.setDistance(distance);
neighbor.setInstance(instance);
distances.add(neighbor);
}
for (int i = 0; i < distances.size(); i++) {
for (int j = 0; j < distances.size() - i - 1; j++) { if(distances.get(j).getDistance() > distances.get(j + 1).getDistance()) {
Neighbor tempNeighbor = distances.get(j);
distances.set(j, distances.get(j + 1));
distances.set(j + 1, tempNeighbor);
}
}
}
return distances;
}
}
```